Reply To: Hepatocutaneous syndrome
This article has just been released in JVIM, thought it was good timing for your case!
Clinical features and amino acid profiles of dogs with hepatocutaneous syndrome or hepatocutaneous-associated hepatopathy
Background: Superficial necrolytic dermatitis (SND), hepatocutaneous-associated hepatopathy (HCH), aminoaciduria, and hypoaminoacidemia define hepatocutaneous syndrome (HCS) in dogs. Dogs without SND but that possess all other syndrome components are not well described.
Hypothesis/objectives: To define an inclusive syndrome, aminoaciduric canine hypoaminoacidemic hepatopathy syndrome (ACHES) for dogs with HCH or HCS. Compare clinical features, salient clinicopathologic variables, and plasma and urine amino acid (AA) profiles among ACHES cases by skin lesion status.
Animals: Dogs of various breeds and ages diagnosed with ACHES (n = 41). A control (CON) cohort (n = 12) provided AA profile data.
Methods: Retrospective case series. Available medical records of previously identified cases were reviewed for salient clinical features and clinical pathology data. Plasma and urine AA profiles were performed. Cutaneous lesion status was classified as none, mild, or fulminant.
Results: Thirty cases (73%) developed SND at some time. Dogs with fulminant skin lesions at diagnosis (n = 22/41, 54%) had significantly lower hematocrit (P = .05) and mean corpuscular volume (P = .01) than dogs without SND. Principal component analysis of plasma AA profiles identified distinct clustering of CON from ACHES dogs, but not by skin lesion status. Plasma 1-methylhistidine (<7 nmol/mL) and cystathionine (<7.5 nmol/mL) were robust ACHES biomarkers. Urine lysine (>344 nmol/mg creatinine) and methionine (>68 nmol/mg creatinine) also were useful ACHES biomarkers.
Conclusions and clinical importance: Specific AA biomarkers provide additional diagnostic utility in ACHES. Data suggests that HCH is an early stage, and SND a later stage manifestation of ACHES.